FRACTURES OF THE BONES IN THE ANKLE JOINT
Bryam Esteban Coello Garcia, Byron Xavier Cabrera Castillo, Fatima Viviana Benalcazar Chiluisa, Angel Patricio Fajardo Zhao, Luis Antonio Moreira Moreira, Elen de la Fuente Bombino, Carmen Ruth Sanmartin Riera
Introduction: Ankle fractures are usually frequent in emergency departments worldwide, with an incidence of 187/100,000 inhabitants per year. Especially the type B fracture according to Webers classification, which may lead to long-term osteoarthritis in approximately 14%. It is essential to recognize that stability in the ankle joint is the fundamental pillar in the correct treatment strategies in ankle trauma. Objective: to describe current information related to ankle bone fractures, etiology, anatomy, epidemiology, mechanism of action, presentation, classification, evaluation, prognosis, treatment and complications of ankle fractures. Methodology: a total of 38 articles were analyzed in this review, including review and original articles, as well as clinical cases, of which 26 bibliographies were used because the other articles were not relevant to this study. The sources of information were PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane; the terms used to search for information in Spanish, Portuguese and English were: ankle fracture, fractura do tornozelo, ankle, tibia, fibula, ankle fracture. Results: Bimalleolar ankle fractures occur in a quarter of the patients and trimalleolar fractures in the remaining 5% to 10%. The incidence of ankle fractures is close to 187 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Open fractures are infrequent, representing only 2 % of all fractures of the ankle joint. In children, these injuries are also frequent, occupying the second place after hand and wrist injuries, especially in those between 10 and 15 years of age. Likewise, pediatric ankle fractures occur in a 2:1 male to female ratio, representing 5% of all fractures in children and approximately 9% to 18% of all fissure injuries. Conclusions: the ankle joint is complex, in gynglimus, formed by the fibula, the tibia and the talus and also deeply related to the ligamentous complexes. The bony anatomy that provides stability is formed by the distal part of the tibia and fibula, its articulation with the talus and with each other. Generally ankle fractures are caused by different trauma mechanisms such as impact, twisting and crushing injuries. Ankle injury depends on several factors such as mechanism, chronicity, bone quality, patients age, magnitude, direction, impact velocity and foot position. A complete and comprehensive medical history is essential in the medical evaluation. X-rays are the first-line adjunctive tests that aid in the evaluation of an injury that impacts the ankle. The classification system is important for the treatment decision. The treatment of fractures of the ankle bones can be performed conservatively or surgically, depending on certain criteria, and immobilization should be performed afterwards to reduce the risk of complications. It is essential to follow the ATLS scheme in order to define and manage any alteration that may be life-threatening for the patient. Ankle fracture-dislocation requires urgent manipulation to recover the ankle mortise.
Keywords: fracture, ankle, tibia, fibula, bones.
Journal Name :
EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR)
Published on : 2023-03-21